Baristas have long known about the importance of water for great coffee and espresso. Coffee is 98.3 percent water, so if the mineral content is too high, or even too low, or if the water is high in chlorine, coffee and espresso won’t have the proper flavour or aroma. And since brewers operate at high temperatures, scale will build within the boilers and clog or reduce the life of the equipment.

Below you’ll see charts that display our recommended water specifications. Water used to make coffee and espresso beverages must be potable under local requirements and EPA drinking water standards, and it is recommended to meet the following attribute requirements:

Colour Codes

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Parts per Million (ppm)

Total Hardness (TH)

Grains per Gallon (gpg)


Total Alkalinity (TA)

Parts per Million (ppm)

Free Chlorine (FCl)

Parts per Million (ppm)

Total Chlorine (TCl)

Parts per Million (ppm)

Chlorides (Cl)

Parts per Million (ppm)

Iron (Fe)

Parts per Million (ppm)